Four studies on videogame genre preferences

The Electronic Software Association’s statistics of the gender breakdown of people who play videogames is commonly cited pretty much everywhere. However, this statistic cannot answer further inquiries, such as the gender proportions across genres, play time, or even motivations to play videogames. There are motivational differences in gamers’ preferences for genres, such as competition, enjoyment in the broadest term, violence, thrill seeking among others. This comes from common perceptions among gamers as well as good number of studies.

I recently noticed two studies published just a week apart from each other. Tilo Hartmann and colleagues’ publication in New Media & Society and Johannes Breuer and colleagues’ publication in Communication Research Reports. Later in May at the International Communication Association’s annual meeting in Seattle, two more related studies were presented. Lotte Vermeulen and Jan Van Looy’s study on stereotype perception and Claudia Wilhelm’s study on gender stereotypes in gaming behavior.

Given that I am reviewing four studies instead of one, the amount of detail given to each is reduced accordingly. Continue reading

To feel like the good or bad guy: The role of empathy (Happ et al., 2014)

Matthew Grizzard (University of Buffalo) used “University Press Release” for his videogame study on moral sensitivity that was published in Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. It was super effective, many news media picked up the study. In response, I am blogging on Christian Happ (University of Trier), André Melzer (University of Luxembourg) and Georges Steffgen’s (University of Luxembourg) study on the role of empathy in antisocial and prosocial gaming in Psychology of Popular Media Psychology.


Evidence suggests that violent media influence users’ cognitions, affect, and behavior in a negative way, whereas prosocial media have been shown to increase the probability of prosocial behavior. In the present study, it was tested whether empathy moderates these media effects. In two experiments (N 80 each), inducing empathy by means of a text (Study 1) or a video clip (Study 2) before playing a video game caused differential effects on cognitions and behavior depending on the nature of the subsequent video game: The induction had positive effects on participants’ behavior (i.e., decreasing antisocial and increasing prosocial behavior) after a prosocial game (Study 1), or when participants played a positive hero character in an antisocial game (Study 2). In contrast, empathy increased antisocial behavior and reduced prosocial behavior after playing a mean character in an antisocial game (Study 1 and 2). These findings call attention to the differential effects of empathy depending on game type and game character, thereby questioning the unconditional positive reputation of empathy in the context of video game research.

I noticed that many people see me as a great resource and I must disagree because I don’t know everything, I just know what I read from the abstracts. Continue reading

A pairing of exergaming and persuasive health messages for physical activity (Lwin & Malik, 2014)

I don’t write much about health-related videogames studies as I am more familiar with psychological processes. However, my article count for this year tells me that are a lot of articles published in that area, more so than aggression research. This is telling that videogames are really taken seriously by other disciplines, unsure if the public are aware of that. Games for Health Journal is an academic journal that started in 2012, but I have not counted its articles into my library because citeulike can’t enter its citation information and I can’t be bothered to manually enter the info. Try going through 50+ emails of new academic articles every week.

May Lwin (Nanyang Technological University) and Shelly Malik have published an article on the effectiveness of exercise games (e.g. Wii fit) into physical education lessons for imparting health messages. It was published in the Journal of Health Communication which according to a Health Communication faculty member is a high-tiered journal in that area.


This study examines the effectiveness of incorporating exergaming into physical education lessons as a platform for imparting health education messages and influencing children’s beliefs about and attitudes toward physical activity. The authors launched a 6-week intervention program using Nintendo Wii games coupled with protection motivation theory-based health messaging among 5th-grade school children in Singapore. Results indicated that when children who were exposed to threat-framed messages played Wii exergames during physical education lessons, they reported more positive physical activity attitude, self-efficacy, and perceived behavioral control than did those who underwent regular physical education lessons and were exposed to the same message. In addition, among children playing Wii, the threat and coping frames had similar effects on the degree of message influence on physical activity attitudes and beliefs. The implications for schools, parents, and health policy are discussed.

Just started playing the Walking Dead, the moral decisions I made… Continue reading

Reactions to a woman’s friend request in an FPS game (Holz Ivory et al., 2014)

Previously in communication science, Kuznekoff & Rose (2013) did a field experiment in a popular FPS where they played either as a male or female player and analyzed comments directed towards them. What they found is that the female player received three times as many negative comments as the male player.

Adrienne Holz Ivory (Virginia Tech), Jesse Fox (Ohio State University), Frank Waddell (Pennsylvania State University) and James Ivory (Virginia Tech) conducted a field experiment of their own where they examined how players of a different FPS game reacted to either a male’s or female’s friend request following a match. What did they found in this field experiment?


Sex role stereotyping by players in first-person shooter games and other online gaming environments may encourage a social environment that marginalizes and alienates female players. Consistent with the social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE), the anonymity of online games may engender endorsement of group-consistent attitudes and amplification of social stereotyping, such as the adherence to gender norms predicted by expectations states theory. A 2 × 3 × 2 virtual field experiment (= 520) in an online first-person shooter video game examined effects of a confederate players’ sex, communication style, and skill on players’ compliance with subsequent online friend requests. We found support for the hypothesis that, in general, women would gain more compliance with friend requests than men. We also found support for the hypothesis that women making positive utterances would gain more compliance with friend requests than women making negative utterances, whereas men making negative utterances would gain more compliance with friend requests than men making positive utterances. The hypothesis that player skill (i.e., game scores) would predict compliance with friend requests was not supported. Implications for male and female game players and computer-mediated communication in online gaming environments are discussed.

Yay! It’s summer time, now I get to catch up on the games I bought from the last steam sale! Continue reading

The 2014 International Communication Association Annual Conference – Day 4

It’s the last day of the conference and I was basically in zombie mode. I am also in the Digrastudents steam group as it just grew by thirty members. The abstracts can be searched at the convention’s website.

9:00-10:15: Video Games and Social Dynamics: A Good and Connected Life

Jaime Banks, U of Toronto, CANADA

Examining the Impact of Gaming-Related Friendships on Social Capital Among Social Online Game Players
Emese Domahidi, Westfaelische Wilhelms-U Muenster, GERMANY Rachel Kowert, U of Münster, GERMANY

Examining the Relationship Between Online Video Game Involvement and Gaming-Related Friendships Among Emotionally Sensitive Individuals
Rachel Kowert, U of Münster, GERMANY Emese Domahidi, Westfaelische Wilhelms-U Muenster, GERMANY

Stand by Your Man: An Examination of Gender Disparity in League of Legends
Rabindra A. Ratan, Michigan State U, USA Nicholas Taylor, North Carolina State U, USA Jameson Hogan, North Carolina State U, USA Tracy L. M. Kennedy, Brock U, CANADA Dmitri Williams, U of Southern California, USA

The Role of Social Structure of Online Games in Players’ Experiences: Study of a Massively Multiplayer Online Game
meghdad mehrabi, Nanyang Technological U, SINGAPORE Vivian Hsueh-Hua Chen, Nanyang Technological U, SINGAPORE

This Guild Isn’t Big Enough for the Two of Us
Nathaniel D. Poor, USA

Missed skipped sessions: Narrative Persuasion: How Narrative Discourse Influences Persuasive Mechanisms and Outcomes; Analyses of Advertising Cues

Next year’s ICA conference will be at San Juan. Will analyze the cost-benefits. I will be attending AEJMC 2014 conference in Montreal as a presenter and panelist. The Canadian Game Studies Association ran its conference at Brock University just a few days after ICA. The University of Münster will be holding a conference (14-15 August) on social aspects of videogames of which I hold increasing interest, but cannot attend (if you can livestream it, I would be happy to shout/rant/throw tomatoes/criticize/praise at every panel). Am considering about NCA, DIGRA, PAX, GDC. If there are other gaming-related conferences to consider, leave a comment.

The 2014 International Communication Association Annual Conference – Day 3

I attended the Games Studies’ business meeting, there was one item I should have brought up: livestreaming the sessions to the public. However, we will need to gauge the level of interest for such livestreaming from academics and the public at large. I will find it wasteful if there are very few people who will watch it. There’s live tweeting, but how far can you go with 140 characters?

The abstracts can be searched at the convention’s website.

9:00-11:45: The Dark Cloud of Video Game Effects (and an Emerging Silver Lining): Can Games Have a Place in a Good Life?

Andre Melzer, U of Luxembourg, LUXEMBOURG Tilo Hartmann, VU U – Amsterdam, THE NETHERLANDS Sriram Kalyanaraman, U of North Carolina, USA

Narrative and Moral Perspective-Taking as Determinants of Players’ Antisocial Behavior
Andrew J. Weaver, Indiana U, USA Nicholas L Matthews, Indiana U, USA Nicky Lewis, Indiana U, USA Fangxin Xu, Indiana U, USA

WT: A branching from their findings is examining sexism, and racism narratives. One possible study is to see how sexism predicts dating conversation choices, which pick-up lines participants will choose and reject.

Moral Disengagement as a Predictor of Violent Video Game Preference
Andre Melzer, U of Luxembourg, LUXEMBOURG Christian Happ, U Trier, GERMANY Georges Steffgen, U of Luxembourg, LUXEMBOURG

WT: Permanent death in games as a factor in moral disengagement, but this came up in my Facebook feed. Peers’ preferences as influence; Associations between moral disengagement with victim sensitivity, delinquency, ego depletion? Moral disengagement with verbal aggression, harassment, nazi or offensive self-portrayals, trolling.

Why Do Males Play More Violent Video Games Than Females?
Tilo Hartmann, VU U – Amsterdam, THE NETHERLANDS Ingrid Moeller, U of Potsdam, GERMANY Christina Krause, U of Potsdam, GERMANY

WT: Mentioned as an entertainment product, should consider as an socio-entertainment product given the rising social aspect of online gaming. Also we should look at gender from a continuum rather than binary and biological. Underlying factors: market segmentations forces, peer influence and gender norms. Used trailers in their study, why not try Long live the Queen? Mediators: trait empathy, justification of violence, need for aggression, need for sensation seeking. I think there was someone who asked about the gamer identity, I should note that this identity is highly masculine so there is a need to disentangle or consider its gendered/masculine nature. Scheduled to appear in blog posting from its journal article alongside with other related papers published roughly around the same time.

Short- and Long-Term Effects of Video Game Violence on Interpersonal Trust
Tobias Rothmund, U of Koblenz-Landau, GERMANY Mario Gollwitzer, Philipps U Marburg, GERMANY Jens Bender, U of Koblenz-Landau, GERMANY Christoph Klimmt, Hanover U of Music, Drama and Media, GERMANY

WT: Applied the Sensitivity to Mean Intentions Model. Further thoughts are whether this might explain gamer identity’s sense of exclusiveness from mainstream culture, hostility towards outgroups, fake gamer girls, dating violence, internet trolling and flaming, moral disengagement. Possible confounds with gamer and masculinity as the latter emphasize self-reliance and deemphasize trust. Must consider online interactions with other players, are we looking at a spiraling cycle of mistrust? Scheduled to appear in blog posting from its journal article.

Challenged by Rainbows: The Effects of Displayed Violence, Difficulty, and Game-Performance on Arousal, Cognition, Aggressive Behavior, and Emotion
Julia Kneer, Erasmus U Rotterdam, THE NETHERLANDS Florian Knapp, U of Cologne, GERMANY Malte Elson, U of Muenster, GERMANY

WT: Asked same type of questions previously to Diana Rieger (she was also there). Perhaps some level of uncertainty or suspense might be some factors, perhaps as an early-game factor. Something that I believe Jeffrey Lin might have some data on that.

Digital Games and Frustration: Effects on Aggression and Cooperative Behavior
Malte Elson, U of Muenster, GERMANY Johannes Breuer, U of Münster, GERMANY Michael Scharkow, U of Hohenheim, GERMANY Thorsten Quandt, U of Münster, GERMANY

WT: I believe I posted its journal article earlier. Links to John Velez’s work? Further thoughts are expectations of cooperative play, effects of non-cooperative players, gender of partner, skill perceptions.

Interactivity, Video Game Violence, and Behavioral Aggression: Effects or Equivalence? An Experimental Study
Rene Weber, U of California – Santa Barbara, USA Katharina-Maria Behr, GP+S Consulting, GERMANY

Low Temporal Stability of Excessive Video Game Use in German Adolescents
Tobias Rothmund, U of Koblenz-Landau, GERMANY Christoph Klimmt, Hanover U of Music, Drama and Media, GERMANY Mario Gollwitzer, Philipps U Marburg, GERMANY

WT: binge gaming? Not sure if they saw this paper by King, Delfabbro & Griffiths (2013).

Not So Angry Birds: Exploring Flow Experience in Mobile Gaming and the Benefits of Self-Esteem
Shaojung Sharon Wang, National Sun Yat-Sen U, TAIWAN Shih-Jung Hsu, National Sun Yat-Sen U, TAIWAN

WT: The session wrapped up with a roundtable. Unfortunately, I forgot to write down the question that generated such a spirited discussion. But the impression was like the gif below.

Missed sessions: The Nature and Effects of Pornography: Current Directions and Research; Analyses of Gaming, Mobile Devices and Technology

13:30-14:45: Aggression, Bullying, and Fear in a Media-Rich Environment: High-Density Session

Erica L. Scharrer, U of Massachusetts – Amherst, USA

Adolescents’ Antisocial Media Use Increases Their Cyberbullying Behavior: A Longitudinal Study
Anouk H. den Hamer, VU U, THE NETHERLANDS Elly A. Konijn, VU U – Amsterdam, THE NETHERLANDS

WT: a branching research question would be to examine racism, sexism and ageism.

Developmental Trajectories of (Cyber)Bullying Perpetration and Social Intelligence During Early Adolescence
Sara Pabian, U of Antwerp, BELGIUM Heidi Vandebosch, U of Antwerp, BELGIUM

Gender Differences in the Association Between Peer Rejection and Adolescents’ Moral Judgment and Preferences for Antisocial Media Content
Xanthe S. Plaisier, VU U – Amsterdam, THE NETHERLANDS Elly A. Konijn, VU U – Amsterdam, THE NETHERLANDS

Internet Use and Verbal Aggression: The Moderating Role of Parents and Peers
Markus Appel, U of Koblenz-Landau, GERMANY Barbara Stiglbauer, Johannes Kepler U of Linz, AUSTRIA Bernad Batinic, Johannes Kepler U of Linz, AUSTRIA Peter Holtz, U of Jena, GERMANY

Liked Characters Get a Moral Pass: Young Viewers’ Evaluations of Social and Physical Aggression in Tween Sitcoms
Nicole Martins, Indiana U, USA Marie-Louise Mares, U of Wisconsin, USA Mona Malacane, Indiana U, USA Alanna L Peebles, U of Wisconsin, USA

Television Exposure and Fear of Crime in Adolescents: Exploring the Mediated Fear Model
Kathleen Custers, U of Leuven, BELGIUM Jan Van den Bulck, U of Leuven, BELGIUM

The Individual or the Class: A Multilevel Analysis of Cyberbullying Behavior in School Context
Ruth Festl, U of Hohenheim, GERMANY Michael Scharkow, U of Hohenheim, GERMANY Thorsten Quandt, U of Münster, GERMANY

Violent Video Games and Delinquent Behavior in Adolescents: Aggressiveness and Peer Delinquency as Moderators
Liese Exelmans, Katholieke U Leuven, BELGIUM Kathleen Custers, U of Leuven, BELGIUM Jan Van den Bulck, U of Leuven, BELGIUM

WT: Asked the presenter about online gaming experiences, sent her information about Kimberly Kulovitz’s research.

Missed sessions: Affect and Emotion in Mass Media; Gender, Work, and Media Organizations

15:00-16:15: Industry and Public Perception of Video Games: Crafting Tools for A Good Life

Sven Joeckel, U of Erfurt, GERMANY

Japanese Console Games Popularization in China: Nation-State Ideology, Transnational Cultural Power, and Bottom-Up Localization Practice
Sara X. T. Liao, U of Texas, USA

Professional Identity of Women Working in the Field of Gaming: A Qualitative Inquiry
Sonja Ganguin, U of Paderborn, GERMANY Anna Hoblitz, U of Paderborn, GERMANY

Should Game Companies Use Reviews in Policy Decisions?
Brett Sherrick, Pennsylvania State U, USA

The Japanese Console Game Industry: Capcom and Level-5
Mia L. Consalvo, Concordia U, CANADA

What the Gamers Want: Interviews With Videogame Journalists and the Exploitation of Women
Howard Fisher, U of Scranton, USA

The 2014 International Communication Association Annual Conference – Day 2

The annual meeting is one of the few opportunities to walk in to other areas of communication research. We can potentially gain further insights from unfamiliar territories or further distance ourselves, depending on the speakers’ ability. One speaker was very self-referential and self-promoting that turned me off. I am not sure how often people cross over, but I would try it more often next time.

The abstracts can be searched at the convention’s website.

My schedule:
9:00-10:15: How Memes Matter: Probing New Modes of Popular Participation and Exclusion

The Cultural Logic of Meme Genres Limor Shifman, Hebrew U of Jerusalem, ISRAEL
Internet Memes and Public Discourse: Five Fundamentals
Ryan M. Milner, College of Charleston, USA

So Bad it’s Funny: Ambiguous Fan Engagement as an Expression of Cultural Literacy
Whitney Phillips, U of Oregon, USA

Needing to Feed the Trolls to Maintain Honor, but at Great Risk: State-Sponsored Trolling as a Tool of Control
Katy Elizabeth Pearce, U of Washington, USA

“No One Would Create a LOLCat to Keep for Themselves”: Memes as a Conduit for Interpersonal Communication
Kate Miltner, Microsoft Research New England, USA

Jean Burgess, Queensland U of Technology, AUSTRALIA

Missed sessions: Narrative Processes in Media; Threats Responses on Social Media

10:30-11:45: Advances in Measurement and Methodology

Emily Falk, U of Pennsylvania, USA

A Case Study in Computational Content Analysis: Comparisons of Sentiment Analysis Methods on News Media
Rebecca J Weiss, Stanford U, USA

A New Content Analysis Methodology: A Comparison of ExxonMobil’s CEO Corporate Citizen Report Letters for 2002 and 2012
Edward T. Vieira, Jr, Simmons College, USA Susan Grantham, U of Hartford, USA

Development of a Short Measure of Media Multitasking for Adolescents
Susanne E. Baumgartner, U of Amsterdam, THE NETHERLANDS Wouter Weeda, U of Amsterdam, THE NETHERLANDS Mariette Huizinga, VU U – Amsterdam, THE NETHERLANDS

Efficient Versus Accurate Message Testing: Choosing an Optimal Sample Size to Evaluate Message Characteristics
Minji Kim, U of Pennsylvania, USA Joseph N. Cappella, U of Pennsylvania, USA

Manipulating and Measuring Involvement in Mass Communication Research, 1990-2009
Bartosz Wojtek Wojdynski, U of Georgia, USA Francesca Renee Dillman Carpentier, U of North Carolina, USA

Validity and Reliability of Media Violence Exposure Measures
Karin Fikkers, ASCoR, U of Amsterdam, THE NETHERLANDS Jessica Taylor Piotrowski, U of Amsterdam, THE NETHERLANDS Patti M. Valkenburg, U of Amsterdam, THE NETHERLANDS

WT: A reminder that we have yet to establish a gold standard for media violence exposure.

Using a Response Deadline Procedure to Understand How People Process Alcohol PSAs
David R. Ewoldsen, Ohio State U, USA Sarah Brookes, U of Maine, USA Catherine Elise Goodall, Ohio State U, USA Rachel Ralston, Ohio State U, USA Michael D. Slater, Ohio State U, USA

Who Watches the Watchmen? Evaluation of Peer Reviews in Social Science Journals
Malte Elson, U of Muenster, GERMANY James D. Ivory, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State U, USA

WT: Link to the website.

12:00-13:15: Top Competitive Papers in Games Studies

James D. Ivory, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State U, USA

The Keys to Success: Supplemental Measures of Player Expertise in Massively Multiplayer Online Games
Kelly Bergstrom, York U, CANADA Jennifer Jenson, York U, CANADA Richard Hydomako, York U, CANADA Suzanne Christine de Castell, U of Ontario Institute of Technology, CANADA

Framing Gaming: The Effects of Media Frames on Perceptions of Game(r)s
Anna Sophie Kuempel, U of Munich, GERMANY Alexander T. Haas, Ludwig-Maximilians-U Munich, GERMANY

Longitudinal Patterns of Problematic Computer Game Use Among Adolescents and Adults: A 2-Year Panel Study
Michael Scharkow, U of Hohenheim, GERMANY Ruth Festl, U of Hohenheim, GERMANY Thorsten Quandt, U of Münster, GERMANY

Will Exergames Improve Fitness? An Empirical Study Among Older Adults Using Investigating Physiological, Preference, and Intention Measures
Peng Huo, Nanyang Technological U, SINGAPORE Ma Cheng, Nanyang Technological U, SINGAPORE Linlin Wang, Nanyang Technological U, SINGAPORE Yin-Leng Theng, Nanyang Technological U, SINGAPORE

WT: I’m pretty sure I said something to each talk, but can’t remember.

Missed sessions: The Role of Habits in Media Selection: Theoretical and Methodological Challenges to Mass Communication; Gender and Identity Development in a Media-Rich Context

13:30-14:45: Understanding the Good Life Through Our Gaming and Identities: Action, Perception, and Relation

Julia Kneer, Erasmus U Rotterdam, THE NETHERLANDS

A Massively Moral Game? Mass Effect as a Case Study to Understand the Influence of Players’ Moral Intuitions on Adherence to Hero or Antihero Play Styles
Andy Boyan, Albion College, USA Matthew N Grizzard, U at Buffalo, State U of New York, USA

WT: I inquired about Quick Time Events and something about the Walking Dead. I think went about moral choices in relation to narrative research like mental models, Arie Kruglanski and Gabriel Radvansky. Something I have not asked is the approaches of game design for other moral foundations.

Avatars Are (Sometimes) People Too: Linguistic Indicators of Parasocial and Social Ties in Player-Avatar Relationships
Jaime Banks, U of Toronto, CANADA

The Perception of the Effects of Military-Themed Video Games
Greg Russell Blackburn, U of Massachusetts, USA

WT: I sent him everything I have about military and videogames.

The Influence of Physical Activity Habits on Observed Video Game Travel Mode Decisions
Ryan Lance Lange, Alvernia U, USA Jaime Banks, U of Toronto, CANADA Amanda Lange, Independent Game Developer

WT: heh, wonder how students in Columbus would travel?

“I Play So I Am?” A Gender Study Into Stereotype Perception and Genre Choice of Digital Game Players
Lotte Vermeulen, U Gent, BELGIUM Jan Van Looy, U Gent, BELGIUM

WT: Her talk prompted an idea for a gender-games working group or at least create a knowledge pool so that we can tap and contribute because there are things that I was not aware of until it’s too late like the Feminists in Games workshop. My notes were unclear: contact hypothesis, multi-media (memes, youtube videos as stereotype enhancing/maintenance), double-stereotyping, sexist beliefs of gamers, encounter rates with girl gamers. I have some data suggesting that girl gamers reporting to often play with friends than strangers Will be scheduled to appear in an blog post alongside with others.

16:30-17:45 : Poster session time

48. Gender Stereotypes in Gaming Behavior: Play Styles, Gaming Motives, and Genre Preferences
Claudia Wilhelm, Eberhard Karls U Tuebingen, GERMANY

49. Harsh Words and Deeds: Content Analyses of Offensive User Behavior in Online First-Person Shooter Games
Adrienne Holz Ivory, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State U, USA Winston Wu, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State U, USA Nathaniel Andrew, Milligan College, USA Brandon Sesler, Virginia Western Community College, USA Anthony Michael Limperos, U of Kentucky, USA

WT: I requested a copy of their poster, if received it will be scheduled to appear in the next blog posting alongside with one of their papers.

50. Object, Me, Symbiote, Other: A Social Typology of Player-Avatar Relationships
Jaime Banks, U of Toronto, CANADA

51. Seeing Through the Avatar’s Eyes: Effects of Perspective and Gender Match on Identification and Enjoyment
Arienne Ferchaud, Pennsylvania State U, USA Meghan Shara Sanders, Louisiana State U, USA

82. Educational Gamification in the Virtual Classroom: The Effect of Leaderboards on Women’s Math Performance Katheryn R. Christy, Ohio State U, USA Jesse Fox, Ohio State U, USA

118.Nothing to Fear? Fear Responses to Video Games
Teresa Lynch, Indiana U, USA Nicole Martins, Indiana U, USA

86. Americanizing Anime: Is Disney’s Reinterpretation of Miyazaki Movies Removing the “Japan” from Japanese Anime?
Josephine Lukito, Syracuse U, USA

152.Did Manga Conquer America? Implications for the Cultural Policy of “Cool Japan”
Casey Brienza, City U London, UNITED KINGDOM

158.The Subcultural Logic of Anime Fansubs
Douglas Schules, Rikkyo U, JAPAN

174.The Impact of Comics on Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavioral Intentions Related to Wind Energy
Lulu Rodriguez, U of Illinois, USA Xiao Lin, Iowa State U, USA