Age and Violent-Content Labels Make Video Games Forbidden Fruits for Youth (Bijvank et al., 2009)

Via, researchers from the Netherlands and their good colleague Brad Bushman published a study from Pediatrics, which by the way slapped me a subscription fee before I could view the article. There are other articles I’d like to view, but then I got slapped again although I can view other articles, but none of them interests me. I could email the authors for the article, but even if I get it I would be too busy to review it at this time because I’m on a deadline on three tasks in my to-do list. So I’m cutting down on my anime, blogging and gaming.


OBJECTIVE. To protect minors from exposure to video games with objectionable content (eg, violence and sex), the Pan European Game Information developed a classification system for video games (eg, 18+). We tested the hypothesis that this classification system may actually increase the attractiveness of games for children younger than the age rating.

PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS. Participants were 310 Dutch youth. The design was a 3 (age group: 7-8, 12-13, and 16-17 years) x 2 (participant gender) x 7 (label: 7+, 12+, 16+, 18+, violence, no violence, or no label control) x 2 (game description: violent or nonviolent) mixed factorial. The first 2 factors were between subjects, whereas the last 2 factors were within subjects. Three personality traits (ie, reactance, trait aggressiveness, and sensation seeking) were also included in the analyses. Participants read fictitious video game descriptions and rated how much they wanted to play each game.

RESULTS. Results revealed that restrictive age labels and violent-content labels increased the attractiveness of video games for all of the age groups (even 7- to 8-year-olds and girls).

CONCLUSIONS. Although the Pan European Game Information system was developed to protect youth from objectionable content, this system actually makes such games forbidden fruits. Pediatricians should be aware of this forbidden-fruit effect, because video games with objectionable content can have harmful effects on children and adolescents.

More press news: and Chicago Tribune. My few words are that this could apply to any ratings system that has some kind of restrictive measure on youths. My question is how powerful this forbidden fruit effect has on children. It might’ve been answered in the study, but I haven’t read it.

Bijvank, M. N., Konijn, E. A., Bushman, B. J., & Roelofsma, P. H. M. P. (2009) Age and violent-content labels make video games forbidden fruits for youth. Pediatrics, 123, 3, 870-876.


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